Mohenjo Daro History :: Mohenjo Daro is one of the oldest cities in the world, which comes in the Sindh province of Pakistan. It was built about 4600 years (2600 BC) from today. Some remains of the Indus Valley Civilization have been found here. The name of Mohenjodaro is included in the largest cities of the Indus Civilization.
Mohenjo-daro existed at the same time as the civilizations of Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia and Greece. Thousands of years ago, people here were living a civilized, healthy and happy life. Mohenjo Daro is considered to be one of the oldest cities in South Asia.
Please tell that Mohenjo-daro is also called Harappan culture. The city was discovered by the Archaeological Department of India, which is a well-planned city. Mohenjodaro means “mound of the dead”.
History of Mohenjo-daro and the reason for its destruction. Mohenjo Daro History
Where is Mohenjodaro located?
Mohenjo-daro is situated to the west of the Indus river, located in the Larkana district of Sindh province of present-day Pakistan. Larkana is about 28 km from the city on a mound built after the Indus river valley in the middle of the plain area. At that time this mound of the Indus Valley Civilization was the main, on which all the people of the city used to stay during the flood. But due to the flood, most of this mound was buried in the sand.
Mohenjo-daro is one of the oldest civilizations in the world. The major cities of the world’s main Indus culture include Mohenjodaro, Lothal, Dholavira, Rakhigarhi, Kalibanga etc.
Main and salient features of Mohenjo Daro
On the basis of some remains found from the excavation done by the Archaeological Department, there are many features of Mohenjodaro, which are mentioned below.
The Indus Valley Civilization of Mohenjodaro has been unearthed on the basis of the remains found in the excavation done by the Archaeological Department of India. This civilization is the oldest and most developed city civilization in the world. During the search, the Archaeological Department of India has come to know that Mohenjodaro was a huge prosperous city that was planned thousands of years ago. The people here lived a very decent and healthy life. During the search, the Archaeological Department of India has also come to know that the people here also had knowledge of mathematics thousands of years ago, that is why they were so civilized and developed. Some scripts have been found during excavation from Mohenjodaro, from which it is known that the people of that time knew how to read and write, had knowledge of mathematics and were skilled in the art of objects. They knew how to measure, measure, add, subtract, add, add, create, develop and live a prosperous life. The Archaeological Department of India found a special type of Inte among the items found during the excavation, which are all of the same size and same weight. With this, the archaeological department has claimed that thousands of years ago, the people of Mohenjo Daro knew all about measuring, adding, weighing etc. He had settled a prosperous city in a planned manner. During the search, the archaeological department has also found the tools used in farming by the people of Mohenjodaro thousands of years ago from the Indus Valley Civilization, from which it is ascertained that the people of that time were well equipped with those tools. used to do He was aware of many types of farming, from which he used to cultivate for his living. The people of Mohenjo-daro used to do two types of farming at that time "wheat and barley". At that time barley and wheat were the two major crops grown. Let me tell you a surprising thing here that the wheat grains which had turned black in Mohenjodaro at that time have been kept safe even today. Which is a surprising thing, how even after so many thousands of years the black grains of wheat have been kept and how are they still safe. According to historians, there was also a system of keeping the goods produced from agriculture in a planned manner. There was also a system to save food and important things from water. According to the explorers, the pucca houses in Mohenjo-daro, toilets made of pucca bricks, bathrooms and well-planned pucca drains to drain water throughout the city show that the people of that time were skilled in architecture.
Mohenjo Daro’s Culture Civilization
The Archaeological Department of India has come to know during the discovery in Mohenjodaro that thousands of years ago, the people of Mohenjodaro were very civilized, they believed in culture. His clothes, his way of life, his ornaments and the remains of his food and drink show that he lived a very civilized and healthy way of life.
From the facts found during the search, it has been revealed that the people of that time used to wear clothes like today, they had the knowledge of wearing all kinds of clothes. Some woolen clothes have also been found during the search, from which it has been ascertained that the people of that time were also able to wear clothes according to the season. He used to wear clothes adapted to the season in every season.
One of the world’s most developed and oldest civilizations, the people of the Indus Valley Civilization, apart from wearing items according to the seasons, also wear jewelry made of gold, silver and metal, whose remains have been found by the Archaeological Department of India during the excavations in Mohenjodaro. .
It is ascertained from this fact that even thousands of years ago, people used to wear attractive and very beautiful jewelry made of metal and gold, silver. The swimming pool (public bathing planet) built in the heart of the city of Mohenjodaro was the center of major attraction. People used to come here with passion for bathing and swimming. The commercial market was situated around this huge public bathing planet, which added to the attraction of this center even more.
The prosperity of the Indus Valley Civilization is traced to the fact that the people of that time used the means of transport as they are today. He used bullock cart, horse cart etc. for transport. With these they used to work for their transport and goods.
In the Indus Valley Civilization, thousands of years ago, people lived in a prosperous way and in the best way, this fact has been discovered in the discovery of the Archaeological Department of India. In which the food, living, jewellery, clothes of the people there, well-planned city, means of transport, tools, agricultural goods, etc., were all that was there for a prosperous and safe and healthy people. is necessary.
According to the explorers and historians, the residents here were attractive about the culture. The people here used to wear different types of clothes according to the season and used to wear gold, silver and metal ornaments to look beautiful. Jewelry included rings, earrings, bracelets, necklaces, garlands, etc.
The people here used to give a lot of importance to the dress and costumes. It is ascertained from the remains found during the search that the people of that time were very aware of their culture.
Thousands of years ago the people of Indus Valley Civilization had proper knowledge of fashion as today, because in Mohenjodaro excavation by the Archaeological Department of India, creams, soaps, bracelets and beauty items have been found. During the excavation, many types of medicines have also been found there, from which archeology has said that the people there had proper knowledge of medicine at that time. There were also doctors at that time.
The explorers have found many such places and relics during the excavation in the Indus Valley Civilization, from which it can be ascertained that the people there lived together thousands of years ago with brotherhood and love. Apart from this, no trace of war has been found from there so far. It is being claimed that there is love and good relations between people.
After the excavation in the Indus Valley Civilization, the explorer historians and experts say that the Indus Valley Civilization is one of the world’s most ancient and vast civilizations. It was a prosperous, secure and well planned city.
It is being told that the remains found during the excavation in Mohenjo Daro have been preserved safely in the National Museum of Delhi.
Valuable sculptures and works of art
The culture and knowledge of the people of Mohenjo-daro is traced to the fact that during the excavation, many priceless sculptures and objects have been found, in which the Kashya idol of a dancing girl has been found. Apart from this, carving work has also been done on the sculptures of some men. They are all different colours.
It is clear from this that at that time those people had many types of equipment, resources and different types of knowledge, with which they used to enhance their culture and civilization.
During the excavation in Mohenjodaro, the explorer has found a variety of colorful and wonderful sculptures made of precious stones, including sculptures made of ivory. All these are kept safe in the National Museum of Delhi.
During the excavation, playing toys and musical instruments have also been found from the Indus Valley Civilization, from which the explorer has inferred that thousands of years ago, they were fond of music, sports, dancing and fun as today. There were separate special rooms for this, where all this used to happen.
Apart from this, during the excavation, the Archaeological Department of India found huge buildings, coins, sculptures, agricultural tools, bricks, sculpted stones, water tanks, beautiful buildings, clothes, utensils made of clay and metal and many more. Got different things.
Explorers and historians say that the plan to build water drains all over the world started from Mohenjodaro itself. Let us tell that the water drains in Mohenjodaro were made in a very planned manner, which is forcing historians and explorers to think.
Some important and mysterious facts related to Mohenjo Daro ::
Mohenjo-daro, meaning “mound of the dead” in Sindhi, is located on the east bank of the Indus River in present-day Pakistan.
Mohenjo-daro was discovered by the famous Indian historian “Rakhaldas Banerjee” (who was also a member of the Department of Archeology) in the year 1922.
Before the excavation of Mohenjo Daro, the engineer first came to know about the civilization settled near the Indus Valley.
The work of excavation of Mohenjo Daro was carried forward by Kasa Nath Narayan. After this the Indus Valley Civilization was placed by historians in the prehistoric period.
During the search, pucca houses and toilets and bathrooms made of pucca bricks were found in Mohenjo-daro and Indus Valley Civilization.
The skeletons found during the excavation were inspected, which revealed that the people of that time also used fake teeth and also used to be doctors at that time.
Thousands of years ago, the people of Mohenjo-daro worshiped the earth as it is today, because they considered the earth to be the goddess of growing food, fruits, flowers and vegetables. The people of Indus Valley Civilization used to be nature lovers like today.
They worshiped the river god and trees and plants. During the excavation, some evidences of sun worship, swastika symbol and Shiva worship have been found. From which one can find out about their culture and their beliefs.
During the search it has been found that the people of Indus Valley Civilization used to hunt animals, catch fish and also trade. It has also been confirmed in the facts and remains that the people of that time used to give respect to women and emphasis was also given on women worship. According to the evidence that has been found, there is also information about prostitution and purdah system in the Indus Valley Civilization at that time.
When scientists reached the Indus Valley Civilization for the first time, they found dead animals, birds and human skeletons. That is why this city is called “Mohenjodaro” meaning “Mound of Death”.
The history of Mohenjo Daro is very glorious and full of mysteries. The main and major mystery of Mohenjo Daro is that how did the destruction of such a civilized, vast and planned city take place?
Reasons for the destruction of Mohenjodaro
Mohenjo-daro was a very large, civilized and planned city. On the basis of the remains found during the discovery, all the things like its civilization, vastness, confluence and culture etc. were explored, but scientists, explorers and archaeologists have different opinions about its destruction. According to some explorers and scientists, the reason for the destruction of Mohenjodaro is climate change and natural disaster.
The reason for the destruction of Mohenjo Daro according to some scientists was due to the floods in the river Indus. The entire Mohenjo-daro was devastated due to the floods in the Indus river. Whereas according to some historians the reason for its destruction was a severe earthquake.
Some scientists have said that there was a big explosion on the basis of the male skeletons found during the excavation of Mohenjo Daro. He attributed the destruction of Mohenjodaro to a major explosion.
The reason for the destruction by the discoverer of the excavations at Mohenjodaro has been linked to the Mahabharata period. According to the discoverer of Mohenjodaro, the Brahmastra left by Ashwatthama, the son of Guru Dronacharya in the Mahabharata, explains the reason for the destruction of Mohenjodaro.
The reason for the destruction of Mohenjodaro by the discoverers of Mohenjodaro is to leave not one but two Brahmastras. It is said that Ashwatthama enraged upon hearing the news of his father’s death and planned to release the Brahmastra to destroy the Pandavas. After chasing Arjuna left the Brahmastra on him, to stop this attack, Arjun also left the Brahmastra, due to which the Indus Valley Civilization was destroyed.
According to experts, the Brahmastra left in the Mahabharata period was like nuclear power, that is, atomic bombs being made in the modern era. That is why the Brahmastra of the Mahabharata period is also said to be the main reason for the destruction of Mohenjo-daro.
Let us inform that a Bollywood film has also been made on Mohenjodaro, which has been made by director Ashutosh Gowariker. Famous Bollywood actor Hrithik Roshan is in the lead role of this film and Pooja Hegde is also in lead role with him. The reason for the devastation of this great developed city in the film Mohenjo Daro is told to be a terrible deluge or flood.
After the excavation done by the Archaeological Department of India in Mohenjodaro, in view of its archaeological importance, it has been included in the list of World Heritage by UNESCO.